macam – macam sistem operasi (OS)


Mircorost Windows or ordinary we are greeted with the title Windows Operating System developed by Microsoft Corporation that uses the interface with berbasikan GUI (Graphical User Interface) or bergrafis interface.

Windows was originally started from Ms-Dos (Microsoft Disk Operating System) is a text-based Operating System and Command-Line interpreter. The first version of Windows, Windows Graphic Environmnet 1.0 is software that works on 16-Bit arsitekstur and not an operating system and runs on MS-DOS, so to run it requires MS-DOS. MS-DOS itself was created by computer manufacturer Seattle Computer Products, and then was recruited by Microsoft that subsequently purchased the license.

Later evolved into the first version of Windows 1.0 Operating System Operating System in the world based GUI (Graphical User Interface) and supports Multi-Tasking or can do many jobs simultaneously. Once it develops Windows 1.0 to Windows 2.0, Windows 2.0-based GUI, and supports the use of VGA (Video GraphicsArray) and also supports Multi-Tasking. Windows 2.0 also supports the use of which Intel 80286 Processor Processor Processor Intel 80286 is the first with the ability to protect the memory area.

Then proceed with the next generation of Windows 3.0 Windows 3.0 which has the same ability with previous Windows and added support for SVGA or XGA graphics card and also a better icon. In that era, Microsoft also provides a SDK (Software Development kit) so that software developers can develop applications / programs to be able to run on Windows 3.0. Windows 3.0 also introduces a Virtual Device Driver (VXD) which can be useful to minimize dependence on any specific hardware drivers. Windows 3.0 and then evolved into Windows 3.1 that have been introduced with multimedia features and True Type fonts but it also eases the End-User because of the Drag and Drop feature and finally Windows version 3 has grown to be familiar with the Operating System Networking (Windows 3.11).

After growing for a long time Microsoft finally introduced the hybrid 16-Bit/32-Bit Operating System known as Windows 95. Many of the changes from earlier Windows versions are: Windows 95 has a GUI that is more interesting and attractive, supports Plug and Play, supports the naming of a long, has several facilities such as: integrated browser and Windows Explorer to browse the Windows. In addition, Windows 95 has features to manage the power (APM) and also the introduction of the Client-Server.

Next generation of Windows 95 is Windows 98 Windows 98 which supports VGA AGP-based, and supports compact storage media such as USB, the introduction of NAT to share Internet connections and the replacement of the Virtual Device Drivers with Windows Driver Model. There are also some additional features of Microsoft Office applications and Internet Explorer version 5. Windows 98 also has the abilities to play games and run multimedia applications.

The next development is Windows ME, nothing special other than the transition from Windows ME graphical support of 16-Bit to 32-Bit and Windows ME era had a lot of home users who use it. Windows ME was replaced with the Windows NT akhrinya that supports arsitekstur x86 (80 × 86), the Intel IA64 and AMD64 (x64) and supports 32-bit graphics. Windows NT is actually built from the development of IBM’s OS / 2 and Windows NT are also widely used in computer networks. Windows NT also introduced the File System NTFS is better than FAT or FAT-32.

Further developed into a Windows NT Windows 2000 many additional features including: Active Directory, Image Preview, Internet Explorer Browser v6, DirectX and Open GL, Plug and Play and Windows Driver Model performance is better than ever. After generation of Windows XP Windows NT munculah that offers a lot of changes, has many more features and performance mengingkat. You could say Windows XP is Windows the most in demand and loved by the users PC and mobile PC devices (Mobile). Along with the need for the Microsoft Corporation issued a networking operating system that concentrates on the network, ie: Windows Server 2003. You could say Windows Server 2003 is a reincarnation of Windows NT.

Lots of features offered in Windows Server 2003 is one of them is the introduction of the platform. Net. Introduced also features Domain Controller Server, PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Server, Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), Microsoft IIS, and so forth. Microsoft would continue development of the Operating System with Windows Vista (Longhorn), this is a revolution of Windows XP. Windows Vista prefer the graphical interface or the appearance of the interface compared with the performance, evidenced by the features: AERO, Sidebar, and so forth.

Windows Vista also offers a better level of security compared with Windows XP, because Windows Vista introduced the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security, Windows Defender, Parental Control, User Account Control (UAC), BitLocker Drive Encryption, ASLR. Windows Vista also already familiar with IPv6, the latest version of DirectX, and arsitekstur 64-Bit. The next development is the transition from Windows Server 2003 to Windows Home Server is intended as a File Server for the home. Windows Server also introduces some of the technology are: Headless Operation (Server does not require a monitor or keyboard to memanjemen devices), remote controls, health monitoring computer, Sharing and Streaming.

The next generation is marked by the advent of Windows Vista Operating System merger with Windows Server, namely Windows Server 2008. Features of Windows Vista and Windows Server combined into a single unified to improve the safety and comfort of End-User. Subsequently developed into a Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 R2. The final version of Windows Operating System is made by Windows 7, Windows 7 was released to replace Windows XP deficiency and excess Windows Vista. May be said if Windows 7 is a fusion of Windows XP and Windows Vista, unlike Windows Vista, Windows 7 has better performance than Windows Vista.


UNIX is an operating system created by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, developed by AT & T Bell Labs. UNIX was designed as a portable operating system, Multi-Tasking and Multi-User. UNIX Operating System more emphasis on Workstation and Server, Because of the high availability and compatibility lead UNIX can be used, copied and modified so that UNIX was developed by many people and led to many variants of UNIX.

UNIX itself was written in C language so that UNIX was similar to the DOS Line / Text Based besides UNIX Command also is a secure operating system than with other operating systems, because every file, directory, user and group has its own set of permissions for access. Because of the support for the GNU project, we then develop into LINUX UNIX (One variant of UNIX).


Originally developed by Linus Torvalds, who at first just a terminal emulation required to access a UNIX server at the university. Linux is the cloning of MINIX (One variant of UNIX), system tools and libraries usually come from the GNU Operating System. Linux has a lot of design derived from the basic design of UNIX, Linux uses the Linux Kernel Kernel Monilitik handling prosses control, networking, peripherals, and accessing the file system. Just like UNIX, Linuxpun can be controlled by one or more command-line interface (Command Line Interface / CLI)-based text, graphical user interface (Graphical User Interface / GUI) which is the default configuration for the dektop version.

On the computer desktop, GNOME, KDE and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces among other variants of the user interface. A Linux system provides a command line interface via a shell (Konsole). The main difference between Linux and other Operating Systems Popular lies in the Linux kernel and its components are free and open. Just as in UNIX, Linux Workstation and Server concentrates on many workstations and servers that rely on Linux because Linux is very stable to use for a long time and Linuxpun immune to Malware.

One thing that distinguishes Linux to other operating systems is the price. Linux is mostly the price of Free, although some are paid (the License). Linux can be distributed without having to give royalties to someone. Linux Operating System is based on POSIX standard is derived from UNIX itself. There are several kinds of Linux distributions, such as: Debian, Lycoris, Xandros, Lindows, Linare, Linux-Mandrake, Red Hat Linux, Slackware, Knoppix, Fedora, Suse, Ubuntu.

  IBM OS / 2

Operating System IBM OS / 2 was made jointly by the International Bussiness Machines Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, for use on IBM computers as a replacement for the DOS operating system. Said OS / 2 is short for Operating System / 2, Operating System is designed to be able to use the full capabilities of the Intel 80286 microprocessor, including the Protected Mode (Protected Mode), able to perform simultaneous tasks, and supports virtual memory, while maintaining compatibility with many MS-DOS software in circulation at that time,


MAC OS or Macintosh Operating System Operating System is made by Apple Computer for Macintosh computers and is compatible with IBM-based computer. MAC OS is the first operating system that uses a graphical user interface (Graphical User Interface / GUI). The Macintosh operating system is divided into two types:

1.MAC OS Classic
Not have any Command Line (command line), using the User Interface (UI) and fully use the Cooperative Multitasking

MAC OS X include elements of BSD Unix, One Step, and MAC OS X has a Unix-style memory and Pre-emptive multitasking.

MAC OS advantages:

1.Stabil, because the use of UNIX.


3.VISUAL (UI) is very good. of Malware.

MAC OS X is a line of computer operating systems developed, marketed by Apple Inc., MAC OS X is the successor of the MAC OS (Classic). MAC OS X is built on xnu kernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface.


FreeBSD is a free Unix-type operating system derived from UNIX AT & T. FreeBSD runs on Intel x86 systems. FreeBSD itself first appeared in 1993 by David Greenman. FreeBSD is the purpose of providing software that can be used for various purposes. FreeBSD itself developed from a project development BSD 386BSD OS that runs on Intel chips.


Solaris Operating System is an operating system based on UNIX system that allowed by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as a supporter oada SunOS. Solaris is famous for its stability, especially on the system SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture), certified in the Solaris UNIX Specification, although at the beginning of its development based on private ownership, and most of the code is basically now commonly known OpenSource Software with OpenSolaris. OpenSolaris is the OpenSource version of Sun Solaris Operating System, but Sun Solaris consists of over some code that is not only the core of the Operating System such as: Source for Installer, Desktop, Software.

Open Solaris has many features that make OpenSolaris can be used for large-scale use of the use of pC for desktop or mobile PC. The concept of Open Solaris is as follows:

1.Free redistribution: Distributed freely.

2.Source Code: Source (Source) should be available for all distributions.

3.Derived Works: Every person can change the code and mendisrtibusikan back.

4.No Discrimination: Code must be provided for a person to dikembagkan.

Several advantages compared with the OpenSolaris Operating System are:

1.ZFS: System Rstore.

2.DTrace L: It can be observed when an application uses a lot of time and how long.

3.Manajemen Failure: Prevent, diagnose and fix the error.

4.Zona: Implement an operating system abstraction that allows multiple applications to run isolated from each other in the same physical hardware.


 Chrome OS

Chrome OS is Google’s Operating System is lightweight and web-based Linux and standard PC for personal computer. Google Chrome work with Windowing method or switching (multi-tasking). Google Chrome OS using a standard web HTML 5, which is the development of browser-based software on the Operating System. If the see-saw, Chrome OS is a combination of Linux and Windows Vista. Chrome OS was released in mid-2010.

Lots of different kind of computer operating system that continues to grow, No Operating System is perfect for each Operating System has its own characteristics and resources. Although there are a paid operating system, why not try a Free Operating System or free? Free does not mean bad, good or bad depends on an Operating System End-user should own. So we must be careful in choosing the operating system being used.


Posted on Februari 20, 2012, in pelajaran and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Tinggalkan komentar.

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